Neo Rio: Pollinators, Plants & People

Invited to be a part of Neo Rio 2016: Pollinators, Plants & People, the Debris Project was integrated into a part of the installation called ADRIFT, which looked at the chemical impacts on pollinators. Neo Rio is an annual arts event hosted by LEAP (Land, Environment & Art of Place) at the Montoso campground in the Wild Rivers Recreation Area in the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument. LEAP provides opportunities to deepen our appreciation and understanding of and relationship to our environments and our human and non-human neighbors; to increase our commitment to protecting these places and relationships and fostering creative responses and expressions of them in contemporary art and culture.

ADRIFT was installed in the man-made structure of the campsite, which had a view of the Chevron Questa mine. Because mining releases substantial chemicals into watersheds, and chemical body burdens are intimately tied to plastic pollution, this setting was ideal to present the chemical impacts on our watersheds. Included in the installation were post industrial western landscapes of oil refineries in Commerce City & Sinclair Wyoming, as well as an aerial view of the DOW chemical plant in Texas. DEBRIS tiles were hung vertically as flags to withstand the strong winds that whip across the top of the Rio Grande gorge. The images were representations of native pollinating water insects created with Oceans First in Boulder, Colorado during a spring session earlier in the year. Weighting down the flags was a plastic toy dinosaur; a reminder that the source of endocrine disrupting chemicals is fossil fuels.

View from the ADRIFT installation at the Montoso campground towards the Chevron Questa Mine looming in the distance. Chevron is confronted by years of remediation work after the mine recently shut down.
Gaea McGahee explores DEBRIS tiles at night as the Neo Rio event rambles on around the campfire.
Printed matter: preparation of tiles made earlier in the spring by Oceans First students in Boulder, Colorado. The students focused on creating plastic representations of flies found in watersheds throughout the Rocky Mountain West.
Making DEBRIS tiles into vertical hanging flags to withstand the winds that whip across the top of the gorge.
Hanging the flags: weighting down the vertical flags is a reminder of the source of plastic and the chemicals in the form of a plastic toy dinosaur.
Exploring the broader theme of pollination, the works installed in the ADRIFT section included butterflies, here represented as flags hung under a painting of the DOW chemical plant. The butterflies were conveyed as voids to echo the decimation of habitat monarchs are facing now because of heavy use of chemicals in agriculture. The central flag is a re-purposed plastic pro-cor plate created in collaboration with Susanna Mitchell as part of the Monarch project.
Detail of a butterfly flag with degraded plastic filling the void.
A deflated plastic bee balloon was stung up in a dead tree to serve as a flag marking the path between the ADRIFT installation and HOME. The HOME installation was a hands on activity station that explored how pollinators like bees are essential to human nourishment. Providing a solution to the challenges pollinators face now, local wildflower seeds were offered to participants to take home to their own gardens in order to provide habitat for pollinators.


Max Liboiron for the Civic Laboratory for Environmental Activist Research

The opening plenary for the 4th International Marine Conservation Congress was given by Max Liboiron, who practices ‘Civic Science’ where she works for the public good, throwing in a feminist slant for good measure. She values accessibility and sharing, equity building and justice. She is moved by the people and animals who dwell in her homeland of Newfoundland and seeks justice for the communities who are disproportionately impacted by plastic pollution and the chemical body burdens that are intimately tied to the issue. She demonstrated a deep concern for indigenous communities as her voice wavered during her description of how they discovered through global media that endocrine disrupting chemicals in Inuit mothers’ breast milk was off the charts. Because of the way chemicals are stored in fat, they are biomagnified through the marine food web, and reach the highest concentration in animals who carry a lot of fat. Because Native populations here in the far north traditionally consume fatty meat from these cold waters, the impact from diet has been severe. She thinks it unfair that they learned of their situation through the global news networks instead of those who were leading the study, and described the fallout as there was no one there to guide them through options. Mothers stopped breastfeeding their babies, and introduced formula which has demonstrated long term health impacts of weakening immune systems. The corporate food source also introduces a neo-colonial framework which severs traditional roots. This situation inspires her to address the unevenness of the scientific field and informs her practice. She talked about ‘Ethnographic refusal’ where communities like this could respond on their own terms. She doesn’t feel that the academic world has a right to everything. And it became an important part of her collaborative practice to arrive at decisions on who gets access to findings, not as censorship, but as a way for a community of people who are directly impacted by the information at hand to assess their own options.

In developing her methodology, Ms Liboiron feels it is vital to state clear intentions with collaborators and to the public. For collaborators, she designs accessible research tools for target communities, namely the outport fishermen who are largely low income, but offer tremendous insight through their own traditional fishing practice. Her design principals are open source, can be built by participants for less than $50 from accessible materials found in local hardware stores, using as little plastic as possible. They should be hackable and repairable so that the fishermen can easily gather material in the field. She acts as a facilitator, following the concerns expressed by outport communities, guided by what they feel is important. She invites them to participate through gathering material for a study, then analyzing it as well, placing a lot of trust in the stewards of this place. Her methods represent an inspiring approach to citizen activated science.

Examples of accessible design developed by the Civic Lab
Examples of accessible design developed by the Civic Lab

Because she works with plastic pollution, she asked that the fishermen could save the guts of their cleaned fish so that they could analyze it for plastic within. Her heart sank as she found contamination in cod, the ‘heartbeat of Newfoundland’, referencing the collapse of the codfish industry that gutted the economy here.

Then she spoke of how to implement the societal changes that are necessary to address the broad issues of plastic pollution. We can raise awareness through information and education, instilling values, inspiring DOers…but then there is a block by infrastructure before we arrive at true behavior change. How can we truly avoid plastic if all of the food available is wrapped in it? She suggested targeting change makers over the masses, and publishing articles in the mainstream media instead of only academic journals. She lauded the efforts of Chelsea Rochman, who has effectively influenced policy change in the US in regards to banning microplastics as an ingredient in personal care products. Her words offered a path to effect change in the overarching structures that define our world today is essential to truly having an impact on plastic pollution.



With the upcoming move of Japan’s largest fish market from Tsukiji to a new site in Toyosu in November 2016, certain practices will change. The market will be more closed to the public, and it is important to consider what it means to take certain practices out of the public eye. In this case, it is the wasteful consumption of polystyrene or ‘Styrofoam’. The Tsukiji fish market in Tokyo was likely one of the most sublime markets in the world. I left there wondering how there was a living fish left in the ocean when considering the immensity of the commerce that happened there on a daily basis. To experience it in full swing, it was vital to go early. Officially, tourists weren’t allowed in the market until after 9am, but by then the vendors had finished the bulk of their business for the day. I attended the market in the summer of 2014 when it was in its final active years. Swimming with the flow of market goers from the Tsukijishijo station on the Oedo metro line I found my way in at 4:30am. Embedding myself in the tight weave of alleyways, it was a good couple of hours of meandering through stalls, photographing the Styrofoam towers of fish on ice before emerging into a larger alleyway and being nabbed by a guard as an obvious outsider. It was that point that I was flushed out with the tidal wave of Styrofoam that keeps the fish ‘fresh’.

One reason the market is being moved is to ‘control’ visits by outsiders. I’m certain that vendors tired of the foreigners who found their way in gawking in awe at the scale of the market. There has been more than a bit of harping in the realm of overfishing and species depletion, which is a just concern. However, for an island culture steeped in traditions defined by the sea, the prideful Japanese are in no mind to take such criticisms. Traditional food culture is important to maintain, and I certainly enjoyed a breakfast of sashimi in a retro sushi bar aside the market that morning. Treated as a once in a lifetime experience, I am happy to have had that quintessential Tokyo meal despite my concern for consuming depleted fish stocks. It was the most delicious sushi I’ve tasted, so my overall consumption of it since then has since declined.

What really confounded me was the massive amount of Styrofoam that grew into mountains before it was taken away with front loaders and dump trucks. Occasionally a lone scavenger could be found piecing together a set to re-use, but the vast bulk of it is loaded into trucks bound for…? Who knows where? My guess is the incinerator as polystyrene is listed as ‘burnable’. In this case, it releases toxins we consume through our lungs. There are some feeble attempts at ‘recycling’, but as far as I understand, no plastic is truly ‘recyclable’, it is only down-cycled into products that serve a limited useful life…and the material still stays around for a very long time. Best practice is to use less from the start. Unfortunately the fish trade will be a little less visible in the public eye, so we will have a hard time assessing if the overuse of polystyrene is curbed in the near future.


A lone scavenger sorts through boxes to re-use before they are carted away.
A lone scavenger sorts through boxes to re-use before they are carted away.

It was actually in Japan that a vital component to marine debris toxicity research was accomplished. Hideshige Takada, from the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology found that plastic debris floating in Tokyo’s harbor absorbed persistent organic pollutants up to millions of times the concentration than in the ambient waters that surrounded the material. This eventually led to understanding how they are intricately tied to endocrine disrupting chemicals that persist in the oceans, to which all of our chemical us drain. They then enter the marine food web by de-sorbing into the flesh of marine life that consumes it, and biomagnify as they move up the food chain.  He founded the International Pellet Watch to gauge how toxic waters are in various parts of the world, incorporating a widespread citizen science effort which engaged the span of impacted communities on a scientific platform. His is an interesting method in that he has figured out how to use solid pollution to measure invisible toxicity. Understanding the links between solid plastic pollution and chemical contamination allows us to realize how this is a personal issue, intricately tied to our health, not simply an eyesore floating across a distant sea.

Report from Thailand

Surface Arts Collaborative residency at the Rumpueng Community Artspace

Chiang Mai, Thailand

It is said that Thai people touch the earth lightly, like butterflies. Indeed as a visitor, I was greeted with nothing but the utmost of grace. As I explored the corners of Chiang Mai, however, I noticed a flurry of plastic bags fluttering in the wind like butterfly wings. This material is anything but light in its environmental impact.

I was in Thailand specifically looking at the way plastic is used and misused as part of the Debris Project, a collaborative art installation built from an international response to the health and environmental impacts of plastic. With the recognition that plastic is an important material because we don’t have the natural resources to support out population without it, we focus on the environmental havoc wreaked by single use plastic. As a resident at the Rumpueng Community Arts Space, I had the opportunity to connect with local creatives and work with an array of students through the efforts of Katie Jade Hawker and Pitchaya at Surface Arts as part of their residency program which hosted artists making collaborative works. There was an installation of the artwork made in Thailand at the Rumpueng gallery space from 23-30 October. The project has been carried on by Art Relief International, who hosted an installation of the project as a culmination of their participation at Thapae East on November 6th.

A primary focus of the Debris Project is to share solution oriented stories about how people in different places are acting to reduce plastic pollution. During my city excursions, I was delighted to see the filter water stations installed regularly through town. Understandably, plastic bottle consumption is growing fastest in areas where the tap water is not safe to drink. The network of water refill stations that has been established in Thailand is a viable solution to overcome the waste produced in what has become a conventional bottled water system. Culturally, the overconsumption of single use plastic de-values this important material, which has caused devaluation of material worth. The recycling centers that line the canal road south of town have established a good way of maintaining the value of raw material. It was inspiring to see so much material sorted through and actively streaming back into use.

A filtered water re-fill station commonly found throughout Thailand offers inexpensive drinking water, which also cuts plastic bottle waste.
A filtered water re-fill station commonly found throughout Thailand offers inexpensive drinking water, which also cuts plastic bottle waste.

The other impressive part of the community around Chiang Mai are the children. The next generation is very much in tune with the issue of plastic pollution because they care about a clean environment and about animals. The work they made for the Debris Project expresses their concern and is an important reminder that according to Dr. Edward Hume, the largest legacy we are leaving to the next generation is quite literally trash. I don’t like thinking of my son inheriting an impossible amount of garbage, and have found most parents would agree. We are getting sick from the chemicals from which plastic is made, as well as by chemicals absorbed by plastic when both enter marine environments. In addition to a myriad of degenerative illness, one of the biggest impacts of these endocrine disrupting chemicals is infertility. The impacts are trans-generational meaning that when I’m exposed to the toxins carried by plastic, it is my son and grandchildren who bear the health impacts. The issues around plastic pollution are far more than just aesthetic.

The Debris Project acts as a tool to educate communities about plastic pollution. So far, it has engaged participation from collaborators across the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the Caribbean, Mediterranean and North seas as well as Himalayan and Rocky Mountain headwaters. The pieces of the installation are created through hands on workshops as part of educational programming integrated into schools and hosted by environmental organizations. We worked with children from across the region and found they were incredibly resourceful when it came to re-appropriating plastic as a material to come up with new uses for this material that would have been discarded. The children at the Schools of Hope, who are primarily Shan refugees from across the Myanmar border, don’t have access to a lot of toys. When they learned they were free to do anything with the materials, many of them made themselves new toys like cars out of plastic bottles. While the primary focus of the Debris Project is to create representations of marine life integrating plastic, inventive repurposing of material by any creative means is also encouraged. We are constantly exploring how we can continue to cultivate the concern and resourcefulness demonstrated by the children in these kinds of communities.

A student from the Schools of Hope makes a new pair of dolls for herself.
A student from the Schools of Hope makes a new pair of dolls for herself.

The Project is strengthened by collaborators who take the idea and run with it. The kids at the Stratton ABC Foundation decided to make a plastic bottle demon who will migrate around the city to raise awareness to plastic pollution. Art Relief will build a culmination of their workshops in the form of a giant plastic bottle, which carries on a ‘Message in a Bottle’ theme that has been manifested in different ways in various geographies. From a performance in the British Virgin Islands to an installation at the Denver Aquarium by marginalized immigrant youth to a project by high school students from the Bay Area in California, youth around the world are sending the message to reduce plastic waste.

Both installations will include the plastic demon created by the Stratton ABC children, and integrate images that were created during area workshops interspersed with images gathered from around the world to reflect the universal nature of plastic pollution issues. As integrated into the local programming and engaging installations, this collaboration presented solutions on how Chiang Mai may join the movement to leaving the next generation a world with a little less plastic.

'Chevy' The Plastic Daemon was made at human scale to migrate around Northern Thailand to raise awareness of plastic pollution from the back of a motorbike
‘Chevy’ The Plastic Daemon was made at human scale to migrate around Northern Thailand to raise awareness of plastic pollution from the back of a motorbike. Photo by Stratton ABC director, John Cope.

Message in a Bottle

Trellis Bay, British Virgin Islands

Aragorn is a sculptor who has made a series of large iron vessels that he installed over the shallow waters in front of his workshop, which is laid out along the beach in Trellis Bay, just off Tortola in the British Virgin Islands. During full moon celebrations and for the New Year, he lights bonfires within his sculpted vessels. The Debris Project inspired him to come up with a performance piece which would ultimately act as a message in a bottle from the sea about plastic pollution during his New Years gathering. As the large crowd gathered on his beach looking across the twinkling bay in anticipation of the celebratory fires, hundreds of glowing plastic bottles washed ashore at their feet just before the sculptures burst into flames. As an unanticipated but welcome end to the action, local kids swarmed the beach to pick up every one of the bottles. Their beach clean concluded the event on a hopeful note as the next generation acted as stewards for the beach. Island music and revelry ensued.

The project worked effectively because as sailors, we were able to deduce the direction of the wind so that we made sure the bottles hit their target, and did not add to ocean debris. Repurposing the bottles further, Aragorn used the bottles as padding to pack the ceramic works that are shipped out from his workshop. He makes this a regular practice; collecting used plastic bottles from his neighbors’ cafes and using them as packing material for his creative works.

Visit Aragorns Studio web site

Message in a Bottle Performance at Aragorn's studio on Trellis Bay in the British Virgin Islands
Message in a Bottle Performance at Aragorn’s studio on Trellis Bay in the British Virgin Islands

Inspiring Access: Denver Aquarium

A few months later in Denver, the arts educator Kristen Heeres drew inspiration from this tale to develop a creative project inspired by the event. She worked with her 4th graders at Holm Elementary, a school which serves a largely immigrant population. They made representations of marine life which they inserted into plastic bottles. She took the series and installed them at the Denver Aquarium, who then invited the students to view their installation and gave them a tour of the marine installations. This invitation allowed them access to the bus for a field trip, a rare opportunity for a cash strapped public school. Their tour exposed them the large tanks filled with the marine life they had studied as part of the project. Most of them did not have the capacity to afford a $27 entry fee, so it was their first direct exposure to marine life. They left in awe, inspired to integrate action into their daily choices around material use and waste reduction. The Debris Project works most effectively when it gives communities access to experiential learning demonstrated here.

Read Kristen’s educational statements here
Kristen in available for consulting on how to integrate the Debris project into school curriculum: – 720-878-5254

'Message in a Bottle' installation by Kristen Heeres at the Denver Aquarium was inspired by Aragorn's performance in the British Virgin Islands
‘Message in a Bottle’ installation by Kristen Heeres at the Denver Aquarium was inspired by Aragorn’s performance in the British Virgin Islands

Crossing the Sea: Thailand

The stories of how plastic bottles were used to convey messages about plastic pollution then migrated across the Pacific to Chiang Mai, where Art Relief International presented a culmination of their Debris Project programming in the form of a large bottle. Having worked with schools across greater Chiang Mai, they used the Debris Project tiles as a skin for a large bottle, which they filled with plastic discarded from their offices. As a poignant reflection of their internal use of plastic, the sculpture allowed the organization to recognize how they were using the material. The bottle was installed at Thapae East in Central Chiang Mai. Arts director, Emma Gabriel says that she intends to continue to integrate the repurposing of discarded plastic as a primary material in their future programming.

Bottle installation at Thapae East in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Photo by Patrick Reynolds for Art Relief International
Bottle installation at Thapae East in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Photo by Patrick Reynolds for Art Relief International

Cu Lao Cham Marine Park


Building solutions while strengthening economies

Fishermen on the Cham Islands off the coast of Danang in Central Vietnam were recently motivated to implement an effective program to address plastic pollution which has plagued waters in Southeast Asia. The designation of Cu Lao Cham Marine park as a UNESCO biosphere preserve in 2009 provided the impetus needed for the community to take an interest in clearing plastic from the waters around their islands and maintaining plastic free environments which in turn has provided them with increased income from a growing tourist industry.

The reefs that had been shrouded in plastic bags were cleared and have since started to thrive. The improved habitat encouraged the growth of fish populations. The tourists have followed in suit with boats providing snorkel and dive tours shuttling people out from the UNESCO Heritage site of Hoi An as well as the booming city of Danang. Part of the tours include lunch and beach time on the islands, which provides added income for the families who run the businesses there. Although illegal fishing continues to be an issue within the preserve, the efforts taken towards environmental preservation offers hope in a place that has not historically demonstrated a strong concern for the environment. In this case, money talks. For the first time since the recession following the American war, Vietnamese have developed a strong enough economy to embrace the luxury of environmentalism.

After spending time in Vietnam over the past 25 years and seeing a dramatic economic transformation of the country, I delighted in the opportunity to participate in environmental recreation in the islands with old friends Hoa and Nga. Nga was not familiar with swimming, but we suited her up with a mask and took her out amidst numerous flotation devices so that she could discover the wonders of coral gardens. She was deeply moved by the colorful marine landscapes, saying she had never imagined such worlds. It was an inspiring reminder of how important it is to cultivate environmental stewardship through direct experience. It’s encouraging to see Vietnam reach a point where this kind of experiential opportunity is available to people there.

Fish Sauce bottle
Even as local Cham Island fishermen and dive boat guides recognize the importance of keeping the sea plastic free, currents carry pollution into the sanctuary. This bottle was picked up on a free dive of the corals surrounding the islands and is used in the Debris Project as a tile interspersed with diatom forms.
There is a long way to go in shifting attitudes towards plastic pollution from the wider population. This Cham Island youth makes a show of cleaning up the plastic left behind by the swimmers in the water. We can sense his frustration at this routine which has become all too common.

La Vie des Choses – The Life of Things

Exhibition at Processus, Art & Life, Denver
In conjunction with the Biennial of the Americas, Now!

The Debris Project - Photograph by Christopher R. Perez, Processus This tangle of fishing line was collected from the Oregon Coast
The Debris Project – Photograph by Christopher R. Perez, Processus
This tangle of fishing line was collected from the Oregon Coast

From the Press Release:

Processus presents an exhibit of transformed or altered common life objects and materials bringing attention to current issues. Curated by Viviane Le Courtois, artist and co-founder of Processus, the exhibit explores materials and important ideas from our current life and times in conjunction with the Biennial of the Americas’s theme: Now. The exhibit will be up until October 17th, 2015.

Today, superficiality is widespread on social media, in popular places, and in artists studios. It is the journey of a curator to find what matters by sifting through thousands of images online and many studio spaces. How many artists today are affected by the daily news? How many artists communicate what they think or live through art? We are bombarded by meaningless images and words while the world is still evolving and changing everywhere on the planet. But how do we take the news that matter and make objects talk for themselves? The exhibit is a collection of found, altered and assembled objects that inspire social, economical and environmental dialogues through art.

Processus is open Tuesday to Saturday,10 am- 6 pm, by chance or by appointment. For more information about exhibitions, call Viviane Le Courtois at 303 526 8064 or email


Five Biennial-Inspired Exhibitions at Denver Galleries and in the Streets!
By Susan Froyd, Westword, Wednesday, July 15, 2015

“Now!, the 2015 Biennial of the Americas theme, asks the public to be present, eyes wide open, in the immediate world….The member-driven artist workspace Processus will jump into the Now! game a little late, but with no less enthusiasm, with The Life of Things (La Vie des Choses), curated by Denver artist (and Processus co-founder) Viviane Le Courtois. The group show will focus on what’s important in a glib world driven by social media, through a collection of found, altered and assembled objects meant to open conversations about contemporary life.”

Passions with a Purpose

Project developed by Pablo Rivera & Karie Wycoff for the Ricks Center for Gifted Children at the University of Denver

The 3rd grade atelier was inspired to make a coral reef using existing Debris tiles layered with marine debris
The 3rd grade atelier was inspired to make a coral reef using existing Debris tiles layered with marine debris & antique print reproductions.

The philosophy of the Ricks Center follows an immersive approach to learning that is largely driven by interests expressed by the students themselves. This population is comprised of ‘justice-seekers’ who care deeply for the world at an early age. The passion and enthusiasm demonstrated by the students during their visual exploration of the issues surrounding plastic pollution is inspiring. Their depth of understanding of how the issues are interwoven through our daily lives instills confidence that it is not only possible to educate children on the impacts of their choices, they can also take the initiative to develop better habits. We are left with a feeling that this generation is quite capable of stepping up to the environmental challenges they will face through their lifetime, as long as we take the time to engage them in an in-depth consideration of the issues at hand.

The Debris Project was integrated into the arts portion as an introduction to the Passions with a Purpose segment of the spring semester. The students were then encouraged to pursue the development of a project around their own passions for the remainder of the semester. This gave them an opportunity to experience what it was like to share their passion while trying to engage a wider population around the issue they had chosen.


Pablo Rivera
Primary School Atelier

Educational Statement:

The 3rd and 4th graders at the Ricks Center have been working on a unit titled Passions with a Purpose where students use one of their passions to make a positive impact on the world. The Beyond the Art Room Debris installation was the perfect opportunity for students to use their creative pursuits to participate in creating an installation that brings awareness to a particular cause. The students were first introduced to the project when Lee Lee talked to the students about her own artwork and the work she does to bring awareness to the pollution of our oceans, and in particular the invasion of non-biodegradable plastics. Students then used found pieces of plastic that washed ashore to create individual pieces of ocean life that would be incorporated into a larger installation. Students were allowed to build their own connections between ocean preservation and the materials that would form their artwork. As a result, the artwork the students created ranged collages of fish and turtles to assemblages of coral reefs with its own mini-ecosystem.

Reef ecology: the students worked together to collage found plastic, images from the existing installation and illustrations of reef fauna to build this representation of a coral reef.
Reef ecology: the students worked together to collage found plastic, images from the existing installation and illustrations of reef fauna to build this representation of a coral reef.

Karie Wycoff
Early Childhood Education Atelier
Educational Statement:

Duck created in the Pre-K Atelier using textures printed from plastic layered with repurposed matereal from the Creative Recycling Center.
Duck created in the Pre-K Atelier using textures printed from plastic layered with re-purposed material from the Creative Recycling Center.

As we approach Spring, Early Childhood students become very excited about animals and water subjects. It was a perfect opportunity to collaborate with the Debris Project. Because of our gifted population, there is a global awareness and sensitivity to the world around them, even at a young age. Art with a Purpose is always a favorite topic – so combining their love of water, animals and community purpose – is always successful. This is also a wonderful opportunity to collaborate with other ages and to begin understanding of how the individual works toward a common goal that involves multiple age groups. Also the idea of multiple individuals having the same vision but vastly unique outcomes is incredibly valuable at this age.

Using our in-house Creative Recycling Center (CRC), Preschool students started with plastic lids and added foam pieces, aluminum foil, sequences, and other random recycling materials to create fish. I gave them a brief demo before we started and they had to work out the form and function of fish to be sure to include mouth, fins and eye.

I’m always looking for opportunities to expose PreK students to printmaking. In PreK, we talked about local water animals (animals that live in or near water) as a whole class and their understanding of how human made debris in the water system affects the animals and their habitat. After choosing an animal, they created a simple line drawing that we transferred onto a foam plate. For the background we rolled cool colored paint on to plastic bags, plastic netting and bubble wrap and printed on paper. For the animals (foreground), we printed the foam plates using warm colors and then added plastic Creative Recycling Center materials to embellish the final animal before adding them to their background.

Material Migration: this fish was pieced together with plastic gathered from Maui and photographed on an image of a buoy found in Maine to reflect the wide geographic range of plastic pollution
Material Migration: this fish was pieced together at the Ricks Center using plastic gathered from Maui and photographed on an image of a buoy found in Maine to reflect the wide geographic range of plastic pollution.


Networked Urban Mobilities
Mobile Art Exhibition

Aalborg University, Copenhagen

Installation as part of the Mobile Arts Exhibition at the Aalborg University in Copenhagen
DEBRIS installation as part of the Mobile Arts Exhibition at the Aalborg University in Copenhagen

Methodological Representation

Even as Debris exists on a platform of technology and mechanical reproduction, the work maintains a handmade quality through the collaborative process. In order to keep the participation accessible at a distance, participants e-mail digital files to be included in the project. Makers may share their work without the expense of shipping physical pieces. It also allows makers to keep their original works intact. When ‘released into the ocean’ the images become open to transformation in the spirit of collaboration. The collaborative process echoes the processing of material in the ocean. The pieces are copied, distressed, reworked, torn and mended by participants. The transfer technique is purposefully imperfect. The creatures attain a rubbed out look, or have missing parts so that their appearance echoes of the corporeal impacts of plastic. Without relying on the sensational but disturbing images of entangled wildlife, this part of the process offers a representation of the disintegration of the species. As pieces are reworked then photographed, the images are unavoidably degraded and the creatures obtain a blurred appearance. This blurring effect reflects the undulating quality within marine environments and bring an element of depth when interspersed with sharper images. In actual marine environments, growth stems out of decay. Balancing the destructive process inherent in the transfer process, are acts of creation and mending. This part of the process is about preservation; it is a symbolic representation which help us arrive at an awareness that we may bring to the everyday decisions around our consumption of over-packaged products.

Installation at the Gallery Route One, located near the National Seashore in Point Reyes Station echos the structure of broken down bits of marine debris in the Pacific gyre
Installation at the Gallery Route One, located near the National Seashore in Point Reyes Station echos the structure of broken down bits of marine debris in the Pacific gyre


There is often a misconception about ocean ‘garbage patches’ being enormous floating islands made up of trash. No matter what material they are made of, large floating objects are essential components in open ocean ecosystems. The reality of the plastic in the ocean is far worse; they consist of vast swaths of confetti sized plastic debris which is impossible to recover. The structure of the Debris installation is made up of small pieces to reflect the nature of the way plastic breaks down in the ocean gyres. Plastic is a material that photo-degrades, it breaks down into smaller and smaller bits, but it never cycles back into the environment. It eaten by fish and sea birds, which is fatal because the animals feel full but are not nourished and end up starving to death. Worse yet, it is an entry point for endocrine disrupting chemicals to be absorbed into the marine food web.


Educational Tool

Taking a reductive approach, Debris does not impose any kind of educational ‘model’ onto situations of engagement. Instead, it is designed to be a flexible tool which may be used to fit the needs of an institution, and remains open to cultural and creative interpretations. As long as the work follows the overall concept which addresses the impacts of plastic, collaborators are free to use it in a way that benefits their programs or practice.

Read more about the value of stepping away from Educational Models

Reenie Charriere leading a workshop at the Chateau de la Napoule in France. The children were creating works out of repurposed plastic found along the shore in the Cote d'Azur region of the Mediterranean Sea.
Reenie Charriere leading a workshop at the Chateau de la Napoule in France. The children were creating works out of repurposed plastic found along the shore in the Cote d’Azur region of the Mediterranean Sea.



Largely geared towards youth, the Debris collaboration is a hands on way for young people to learn about the impact of plastic while contributing to solution building. Participants arrive at solutions by learning about alternatives to the convenience oriented culture that produces excessive amounts of waste through becoming aware of the impact on ecologies, cultures and our health. Only in the last couple of generations have we shifted towards a ‘throw away’ culture, so it is possible to reframe cultural attitudes towards valuing materials made from a limited resource within a similar timespan. In order to address misplaced cultural notions of disposability, it is necessary to encourage a reconsideration toward waste at an early age. Children are essential partners in environmental activism as they carry the issues to the hearts of their families. Beyond their roles as messengers, the quality of their marks adds a dynamic quality to the overall installation.

Diatom created at the Museum of Natural History at the University of Colorado
Diatom created at the Museum of Natural History at the University of Colorado

Diatoms & Microplastics

Debris is an educational tool which may be used in a way that may complement a specific institutional focus. For example, the University of Colorado in Boulder has a departmental focus on the study of diatoms. Diatoms are single celled organisms that make up the vast fields of plankton which serve as the foundation of the marine food web. Ocean plankton provides half of the earth’s oxygen and captures half of our carbon, so it is essential for supporting life on this planet. We can’t clean up plastic without also removing the plankton. During a family activity day hosted by the Museum of Natural History at the University, participants created a host of diatoms to release into the Debris installation. It is an important contribution because plastic immersed in fields of diatoms are a trigger point for some of the worst impacts of plastic pollution.

Emerging research by institutions like the Marine Environmental Research Institute (MERI) in Blue Hill, Maine, are looking at the ecological impacts of microplastics; plastic debris that are small enough to blend in with plankton so that they become easy to consume by small marine organisms. These pieces are photo-degraded from of larger pieces of plastic, or are released as plastic microbeads, which are commonly used in cosmetics like facial cleansers, and shed from material like polar fleece when it is laundered. Chelsea Rochman is a marine biologist who is currently looking at the high concentrations of chemicals which absorb easily into the material of plastic, and how they desorb into the flesh of the marine life who eats it. The chemicals are fat loving. Plastic is made from oil, which is essentially a fat, and can absorb chemicals that are millions of times more concentrated than ambient levels within the surrounding waters. When consumed by marine life, these chemicals desorb into the flesh of the marine life, is stored in their fat, becoming more concentrated every time they are consumed. As the chemicals desorb into the flesh of marine life, the animals experience hormonal changes that disrupt the capacity for life to breed by causing infertility. Chemicals are invisible, but in the Debris installation plastic serves as a symbolic representation of the chemicals that are harbored within by integrating the material into the corporeal structure of marine creatures.


Message in a Bottle

Not only is the project open to a range of institutional appropriations, it embraces diverse expressions from creatives as well. Aragorn has a beach front workshop on Trellis Bay near Tortola in the British Virgin Islands. During his last New Year gathering, he was inspired by Debris to execute an art action that presented a message from the ocean about plastic pollution. After enjoying Caribbean music and feasting, a large crowd gathered on his beach in anticipation of fires being lit within Aragorn’s large scaled iron sculptures which are installed in the shallow waters just off his beach. As the crowd waited, peering across the dark waters, hundreds of glowing plastic bottles washed ashore at their feet. The sculptures then burst into flame. A group of island children ran across the beach collecting the bottles in an unexpected and satisfying end to the creative action.


Experiential Education

Kristin Heres is an arts educator who built a variation of Debris with the students at Holm Elementary in Denver, CO. Inspired by Message in a Bottle performed by Aragorn in the British Virgin Islands, she came up with a way to use the project as a means to provide the opportunity for these students to connect with marine ecology at the Denver Aquarium. The class made representations of marine life and placed them in plastic PET bottles for display at the aquarium. Holm Elementary is an underfunded public school which serves a population who lives on the fringes of the city. Families there don’t have the luxury to spend money on tickets to the aquarium. However, because their work was installed at the aquarium, the class got permission to take a field trip to see it. The aquarium staff gave them a tour, which was the first direct experience with live marine animals for many of these students. The experience left them in awe. In order to cultivate a concern for the environment, it is important that people feel a connection to the natural world. When this project helps inspire youth to feel this kind of connection, then it is considered a success.



The collaboration is a gathering of concerned voices from all over the world, around issues to which we are universally exposed. One reason there is no ‘model’ that accompanies this piece is so that the work may maintain an authenticity to the contributing voices. It remains open and inclusive of a wide range of cultural interpretation. For example, there is no other place than Haiti that could offer an authentic representation of the Vodoun Lwa, Boussou, the god protector of the seas. The strength of this project lay in gathering a wide range of cultural ‘voices’ around a single material that has become pervasive in the waters that connect us. Over the next year, the open ended project will travel to the land of a thousand lakes in Minnesota, on to Maui, Thailand and back around to Ireland in order to continue widening the geographies that make up this project.

Give & Take - The Debris Project installation at PlatteForum invited participants to take a tile and contribute a new work to the installation
Give & Take – The Debris Project installation at PlatteForum invited participants to take a tile and contribute a new work to the installation


Makers keep originals, and collaborators keep alterations they have made. Small groupings of the installation are left with collaborative organizations so that the the physical work is as dispersed as the contributions that have been made to the work. As a conceptual element to the work, this dispersal is a reflection of the widespread dispersal of the actual debris.



In addition to the physical installation and workshops that engage communities on the ground, the website, serves as a central nexus to the Debris project. Specific engagements are detailed in a way that offers inspiration to address the issue in creative ways. Effective programs developed by creatives that address plastic pollution are shared. For example, Bhutan is a place that is new to plastic pollution as they have only started opening their boundaries to the outside world. The Voluntary Artists Studio of Thimphu (VAST) has developed ways of talking trash with their community in ways that challenge people to see how their relationship with waste is transforming. They engage the scope of their community ranging from workshops with kids, public installations to engage professionals, and have implemented a recycling program that inserts a small economy for elders. Their myriad of waste oriented projects are described online in order to offer ideas on ways that creative activists are engaging community participation around these issues.

A sculpture of a golden fish made of repurposed plastic cleaned up for the former dump site along the Raidak River was created by the Voluntary Artist Studio of Thimphu, Bhutan
A sculpture of a golden fish made of repurposed plastic cleaned up for the former dump site along the Raidak River was created by the Voluntary Artist Studio of Thimphu, Bhutan

Transcending Disciplines

By inserting Debris into situations that lay outside the realm of plastic activism, ocean studies or even art, the work is able to engage a wider range of populations who are still directly connected to the issues at hand. A string of pop up workshops at the Terra Madre conference in Turin, Italy, connected plastic pollution to industrial agricultural practices. Stepping beyond traditional boundaries of disciplinary practice broadens the dialogue in both the arena of food justice issues as well as plastic pollution, strengthening activist voices that stem from each movement. Endocrine disrupting chemicals used in industrial agriculture release persistent organic pollutants into marine ecologies. Ultimately they drain to the oceans, where DDT and PCBs used a generation ago still persist. There is no way to reclaim these chemicals. Including Debris on an agriculture platform connects issues around plastic to a convenience oriented culture that is steeped in the overuse of chemicals. Slow Food International was founded to counter the effects of a fast food culture through all levels of cultivation and consumption. The organization tackles food justice issues in a celebratory manner around maintaining traditional practices of sharing nourishment. The movement offers solutions that encourage us to step out of the racing pace of contemporary mobilities to slow down and gain appreciation for the way we produce and consume food. Through a return to traditional food practices, we may reduce the amount of packaging we consume thus decreasing the physical waste of plastic. More importantly, through decisions we make at market, we may reduce our chemical footprint by maintaining an awareness of how our food has been grown.

North Seas

Specific to the geography of Copenhagen, the cold waters of the far north and south bear a particular chemical burden. Endocrine disrupting chemicals easily attach to fat, so when persistent organic pollutants enter into the marine food web, the chemicals migrate through animal ingestion, becoming more concentrated in animals who carry a lot of fat. Bioaccumulation in wildlife in the Artic circles means that the animals in cold climates bear the brunt of the chemical exposure even as they live far from industrial practices. Consideration of how we are connected to chemical use in mining and agricultural production is vital to addressing these issues; even as we live far away, the nature of the chemicals is such that they can migrate vast distances on an air or wind current, or in the fat of a migrating animal. In this way, chemicals released anywhere in the world may arrive on our doorsteps. Part of solution building includes an awareness of where our products come from. Beyond the carbon footprint of transport, consideration of the production is essential to reduce our ecological impact on the world.

A puffin by Lee Lee was created specifically for the North Seas
A puffin by Lee Lee was created specifically for the North Seas


A walk along the Raidak River, Thimphu

Himalayan Headwaters: Bhutan

It was the children who started noticing the influx of trash around Thimphu, the capital of Bhutan. You can not go but a few minutes sitting on the banks of the Raidak river without seeing a PET bottle bobbing down its watery course towards India. They were inspired to address the profusion of trash that has only recently become prevalent in this society that prides itself on their pristine environment.

The Voluntary Artists Studio of Thimphu (VAST) runs an array of community engaged arts programs. They welcomed ideas from the youth in their community and came up with a string of programs that has brought the issue to light in their community. The organizers at VAST recognize the value of working with children, especially around these kinds of issues because it empowers the young participants, encouraging them to carry messages into the broader community through sharing their ideas with their families and classrooms. When we reinforce the importance of these topics which the children have demonstrated are inherent feelings, then children are encouraged to actively engage their circles to change attitudes towards an issue like waste.

Bhutanese are used to organic material being the primary packaging of their consumables. The population maintains strong habits of tossing aside packaging, knowing that it will be reabsorbed by the earth. But these habits become destructive once the packaging is replaced by synthetic materials like plastic. It is a time of transition in Bhutan. The cities are growing rapidly and house nearly a third of the population of the country. As with many burgeoning cities, it can be a challenge to implement effective infrastructure systems, like waste management, which rely on public participation.

Bottlecaps from the PET bottles collected for recycling will be integrated into sculptures in the VAST sculpture park
Bottlecaps from the PET bottles collected for recycling will be integrated into sculptures in the VAST sculpture park

Artists play an key role of reflecting the ways and beings of their communities, constantly examining the evolution of societies. The artists at VAST are no exception. In regards to plastic pollution, they have come up with provocative public installations and projects which lend themselves to offering solutions to this emerging problem.

Their workshop is housed in a building across the road from a former dump site along the Raidak river. The VAST community set out to restore this dump site to an ecologically stable park. The site had been full of invasive Russian poplar trees that the government helped them cut down. Using the remnants, workshop participants pieced together the first sculpture for the park, an orb made of re purposed poplar wood. The work echoes the structure of a birds nest, and is an lovely form to start the sculpture park that has been growing on the cleared land.

They have amended the soil and planted trees to protect against erosion as the river runs strong during the rainy season. There is a spring which serves as the heart center of the park, around which they are developing a medicinal zone so that community members may find healing that is growing forth from this healed land.

The Golden Fish is built from trash collected from the land reclamation along the Raidak River
The Golden Fish is built from trash collected from the land reclamation along the Raidak River

The members of VAST collect the debris that has become commonplace, and re-purpose it into the sculptures that are installed in the evolving sculpture park. The golden fish is built from recycled waste and it is built with a very regional aesthetic. The golden color makes it a popular landmark in a culture that values the sheen used frequently in sacred spaces.

The colorful plastic bottle tops were an appealing material for the participants of the workshops, and they have been using them to make decorative skins on tree stumps among other sculptures. The organizers at VAST felt that it was not very productive in addressing the overall ecological concerns of the environmental impacts of plastic bottles, so they encouraged community members to bring in the PET bottles with their caps. The bottles were offered to elders in the neighborhood as a resource that they could sell to Indian recycling centers for a small profit. This program not only helped clean the area of PET bottles, it provided a micro economy to an otherwise marginalized community.

Prompts used in the public installation intended to encourage people to start thinking about the mis-use of plastic
Prompts used in the public installation intended to encourage people to start thinking about the mis-use of plastic

Bringing the issue into the heart of their city, the VAST community set up a provocative installation around the clock tower in the central plaza of Thimphu. Here, they installed piles of garbage that climbed bamboo lattice work that was mounted to the clock tower. Interspersed with the trash were informational signs that described the problems wrought by the presence of plastic waste, calling on the community to recognize the importance of ecological awareness in these days of transition. People were initially angry that these students had filled the plaza with trash. But the students stationed themselves around the installation to engage the public in conversation about the issue. They invited people to walk the paths that were structured through the installation as a sort of discovery journey. The paths led participants around the plaza as if they were walking medicinal wheels of self realization. Ultimately those who took the journey came away with an understanding of this issue that can be hard to digest, but which has an impact on everyone within that sphere.

Unfortunately there is no lack of plastic in Bhutan. It is a growing problem in this kingdom perched high in the Himalayas. There appears to be a thriving natural ecology. However, where there is an influx of human populations that are embracing the materials of our age, then there is bound to be plastic embedded in the trees.


To learn more abut VAST and to support their community arts programs, visit

Bottle Water label from Bhutan
Bottle Water label from Bhutan